TLDR: The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a nonprofit organization in the United States that focuses on science, engineering, and medicine. It was founded in 1863 and is considered one of the highest honors in the scientific field to be elected as a member. The NAS provides independent advice to the government on matters related to science and technology.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine. It is a prestigious organization that consists of elected members who are recognized for their distinguished achievements in original research. These members serve as advisors to the nation on matters of science, engineering, and medicine.
The NAS was founded in 1863 by an Act of Congress signed by President Abraham Lincoln. Its mission is to provide independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. The NAS receives no compensation from the government for its services and is funded through endowments, state governments, private foundations, and industrial organizations.
As of 2022, the NAS has over 2,400 members, including both U.S. and international members. Membership in the NAS is considered one of the highest honors in the scientific field and is based on distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. The NAS holds annual meetings in Washington, D.C., and publishes the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal.
The NAS has several facilities, including its main building in Washington, D.C., which is located on the National Mall. The building is a neoclassical architectural masterpiece and is used for lectures, symposia, exhibitions, and concerts. The NAS also has conference centers in California and Massachusetts.
The NAS awards several prestigious prizes and honors, including membership in the National Academy of Sciences, the John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science, and the Public Welfare Medal. It also administers the Marian Koshland Science Museum, which focuses on climate change and infectious diseases.
In conclusion, the National Academy of Sciences is a highly respected organization that provides independent advice to the government on matters related to science and technology. Its members are elected based on their distinguished achievements in original research, and the NAS plays a crucial role in advancing scientific knowledge and promoting the importance of science in society.