TLDR: Muslim scholars have different views on science within Islam. The Quran and Islam allow for interpretation when it comes to science. During the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim scientists made significant contributions to various fields of science. However, there are concerns about the lack of scientific literacy in some parts of the modern Muslim world.
Muslim scholars have developed different viewpoints on science within the context of Islam. The Quran and Islam allow for interpretation when it comes to scientific matters. Scientists during the Islamic Golden Age made many new discoveries in science, contributing to fields such as medicine, mathematics, astronomy, and physics. They also made advancements in areas like economics, engineering, and optics. Some Muslim writers believe that the Quran contains prescient statements about scientific phenomena that were later confirmed by scientific research.
There is no true word for "science" in Arabic as commonly defined in English and other languages. In Arabic, "science" can simply mean different forms of knowledge. Each branch of science has its own name, but they all have a common prefix, "ilm." The religious study of Islam is also considered a form of science. Muslim scholars have made efforts to integrate science into Islamic teachings.
During the Islamic Golden Age, there was a flourishing of science in the Muslim world. Muslim scientists made significant contributions to various fields, including medicine, mathematics, astronomy, agriculture, physics, economics, engineering, and optics. They also made connections between their scientific discoveries and Islamic scripture. However, there were conflicts between prevailing interpretations of Islam and certain scientific ideas, such as alchemy and astrology.
In modern times, science has been introduced to the Muslim world. Some Muslims have embraced modern science and tried to reconcile it with their faith. Others have rejected it as incompatible with Islamic teachings. There is a wide range of views on the relationship between science and religion among Muslim thinkers. Some Muslims see science as a means to increase knowledge and benefit society, while others have reservations about certain scientific theories.
There are concerns about the lagging of the Muslim world in scientific output and scientific literacy. Skepticism of science exists in some Muslim communities, and there have been instances of resistance to scientific advancements. However, there are also Muslim scientists who have made significant contributions to various scientific fields and believe that science is not incompatible with Islam.
The Quran contains verses that encourage the study of nature and reflection upon natural phenomena. Some Muslim scientists have derived inspiration from these verses and see science as a means to understand the world and fulfill the goals set out in the Quran. However, there are also debates about the limits of science and the relationship between science and religious beliefs.
In summary, Islamic attitudes towards science are diverse, with some Muslims embracing and contributing to scientific advancements, while others have reservations or conflicts with certain scientific ideas. The Quran and Islam allow for interpretation when it comes to science, and there is a range of views on the relationship between science and religion among Muslim scholars and thinkers.