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Hormone

TLDR: Hormones are special molecules in our bodies that help regulate different processes like growth, metabolism, and behavior. They are like messengers that travel through our bloodstream to different organs and tissues to tell them what to do.

Hormones are important signaling molecules in our bodies that help regulate various physiological processes and behaviors. They are produced by different organs and tissues and are sent to distant parts of the body through complex biological processes. Hormones are necessary for the proper development of animals, plants, and fungi.

There are many different types of hormones, including eicosanoids, steroids, amino acid derivatives, proteins or peptides, and gases. These hormones act as messengers between organs and tissues, regulating processes such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, sensory perception, sleep, growth and development, reproduction, and mood.

Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell, which leads to a change in cell function. This can result in the activation of signal transduction pathways and increased expression of target proteins. Hormones can act through genomic pathways, where they activate gene transcription, or through non-genomic pathways that synergize with genomic effects.

In vertebrates, hormones are regulated by endocrine glands, which secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Hormone secretion is often regulated by negative feedback mechanisms, where high hormone levels lead to a decrease in hormone production. Hormones can be transported through the circulatory system or diffuse through interstitial spaces to nearby target tissues.

In plants, hormones modulate almost all aspects of development, from germination to senescence. They are produced in different parts of the plant and can change depending on the plant's age and environment.

Hormones have various effects on the body, including stimulation or inhibition of growth, regulation of metabolism, control of the reproductive cycle, and preparation of the body for different activities. They can also regulate the immune system, induce or suppress apoptosis, and affect mood and behavior.

Hormones can be used therapeutically as medications, and they are commonly prescribed for hormonal contraception, hormone replacement therapy, and the treatment of various medical conditions. Hormones can also interact with behavior, and behavior and the environment can influence hormone concentration.

Hormones are different from neurotransmitters, as they can act over larger spatial and temporal scales and can travel anywhere in the circulatory system. Hormones can be regulated by receptor agonists and antagonists, and they can interact with neurotransmitters in the neuroendocrine pathway.

The function of hormones can be influenced by binding proteins, which help transport hormones in the bloodstream and regulate their activity.

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