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List of programming languages by type

TLDR: This is a list of different types of programming languages, grouped by their characteristics and uses.

Programming languages are tools that developers use to write instructions for computers to follow. There are many different types of programming languages, each with its own purpose and features. This list categorizes programming languages based on their characteristics and use cases.

One category is array languages, which are used for working with arrays, matrices, and higher-dimensional arrays. Some examples of array languages include A+, Ada, APL, Fortran, and MATLAB.

Another category is agent-oriented programming languages, which allow developers to build and use software agents that can communicate with each other. Examples of agent-oriented programming languages include Clojure, F#, GOAL, and SARL.

Aspect-oriented programming languages enable developers to add new functionality to code without modifying the existing code. Some examples of aspect-oriented programming languages are Ada, AspectJ, Groovy, and Nemerle.

Assembly languages directly correspond to machine language, which is the language that computers understand. Assembly languages allow programmers to use symbolic addresses and support macros and symbolic constants. Some examples of assembly languages are x86 assembly and ARM assembly.

Authoring languages are programming languages designed for non-computer experts to easily create tutorials, websites, and other interactive computer programs. Examples of authoring languages include Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA), Lasso, PILOT, and TUTOR.

Concatenative programming languages are point-free programming languages where all expressions denote functions, and the juxtaposition of expressions denotes function composition. Examples of concatenative programming languages include Factor, Forth, jq, Joy, and PostScript.

Constraint programming languages are declarative programming languages where relationships between variables are expressed as constraints. These languages aim to find values for variables that satisfy all declared constraints. Examples of constraint programming languages include Claire, Constraint Handling Rules, CHIP, and ECLiPSe.

Command-line interface languages, also known as batch languages or job control languages, are used for scripting and automating tasks on the command line. Some examples of command-line interface languages are bash, csh, PowerShell, and zsh.

Compiled languages are languages that are processed by compilers, which convert the source code into machine code that can be executed by the computer. Examples of compiled languages include C, C++, Java, Python, and Rust.

Concurrent languages provide constructs for concurrency, allowing multiple tasks to be executed simultaneously. Some examples of concurrent languages are Ada, Erlang, Go, Haskell, Java, and Scala.

Curly-bracket languages are languages that use curly brackets ({}) to define statement blocks. Many curly-bracket languages are influenced by the C programming language. Examples of curly-bracket languages include C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, and Swift.

Dataflow languages represent the flow of data in a program visually, often used for reacting to events or processing streams of data. Examples of dataflow languages include Max, Pure Data, LabVIEW, and VHDL.

Data-oriented languages are designed for searching and manipulating relational data. Examples of data-oriented languages include SQL, dBase, and Mathematica.

Decision table languages are used to express logic in the form of decision tables. Examples of decision table languages include Filetab.

Declarative languages express the logic of a computation without specifying its control flow. Examples of declarative languages include Prolog, SQL, and Datalog.

Embeddable languages can be embedded in other programming languages or in executable code. Examples of embeddable languages include JavaScript, PHP, Python, and Ruby.

Educational programming languages are designed for teaching and learning programming concepts. Examples of educational programming languages include Scratch, Logo, Alice, and Blockly.

These are just a few examples of the different types of programming languages. Each language has its own strengths and weaknesses, and developers choose the language that best suits their needs and the requirements of their projects.

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