TLDR: Booting is the process of starting up a computer. It involves loading software into memory so that the computer can run programs. This can be done by pressing a button or using a software command. Restarting a computer is called rebooting, and it can be done by either turning the power off and on again or using a software command. The booting process is complete when the operating system and applications are loaded and ready to use.
Booting a computer is like waking it up from sleep or turning it on for the first time. When you press the power button or give a command to start the computer, it goes through a series of steps to get ready to work. The central processing unit (CPU) of the computer doesn't have any software in its memory when it's first turned on, so it needs to load software into memory before it can do anything. This software can be loaded by the CPU itself, by firmware in the CPU, or by a separate processor in the computer system.
When you restart a computer, it goes through the same booting process, but it doesn't need to load software into memory again. Instead, it just clears the memory and starts fresh. This can be done by turning the power off and on again, or by using a software command.
The booting process is complete when the computer has loaded the operating system and any necessary applications. The operating system is the main software that controls the computer and allows you to run programs. Once the operating system is loaded, you can start using the computer and running your favorite programs.
In addition to loading the operating system, the booting process can also load other programs that are used for diagnosing problems in the operating system. These programs can help identify and fix any issues that may be preventing the computer from working properly.
The term "boot" comes from the phrase "to pull oneself up by one's bootstraps." It refers to the fact that the computer needs some initial software to load other software onto itself. In the early days of computers, this was a challenge because there was no easy way to load software onto a computer that didn't already have software. But with the invention of read-only memory (ROM), computers could be shipped with a start-up program that couldn't be erased. This allowed for more elaborate start-up procedures to be implemented.
So, booting is the process of starting up a computer by loading software into memory. It can be done by pressing a button or using a software command. The booting process is complete when the operating system and applications are loaded and ready to use.