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TLDR: Biotechnology is a field that combines science and engineering to use living organisms and their parts to create useful products and services. It has applications in medicine, agriculture, and environmental science.

Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that combines natural sciences and engineering to use living organisms and their parts to create products and services. It was first coined as a term in 1919 and involves harnessing biological systems and organisms like bacteria, yeast, and plants to perform specific tasks or produce valuable substances.

One of the key techniques used in biotechnology is genetic engineering, which allows scientists to modify the genetic makeup of organisms to achieve desired outcomes. This can involve inserting genes from one organism into another, creating new traits or modifying existing ones. Other important techniques include tissue culture, which allows researchers to grow cells and tissues in the lab, and fermentation, which is used to produce products like beer, wine, and cheese.

The applications of biotechnology are diverse and have led to the development of essential products like life-saving drugs, biofuels, genetically modified crops, and innovative materials. It has also been used to address environmental challenges, such as developing biodegradable plastics and using microorganisms to clean up contaminated sites.

Biotechnology is a rapidly evolving field with significant potential to address global challenges and improve the quality of life. However, it also poses ethical and societal challenges, such as questions around genetic modification and intellectual property rights. As a result, there is ongoing debate and regulation surrounding the use and application of biotechnology in various industries and fields.

In the field of medicine, biotechnology has applications in pharmaceutical drug discoveries and production, pharmacogenomics (which analyzes how genetic makeup affects an individual's response to drugs), and genetic testing for inherited diseases. It has also contributed to the development of genetically modified crops, which have traits like resistance to pests and diseases, improved nutrient profiles, and increased productivity.

Overall, biotechnology is a field that uses living organisms and their parts to create products and services that benefit society. It has the potential to address pressing global challenges and improve various aspects of our lives, but it also raises ethical and regulatory considerations.

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